Clinical Trial

Disease: Transfusion-Dependent Beta-Thalassemia, TDT, (NCT06041620)

Disease info:

Beta-thalassemia is a group of blood disorders characterised by a reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body.

Haemoglobin is encoded by genes that encode the building blocks of the haemoglobin protein. Mutations in these genes can produce abnormal haemoglobins leading to a family of conditions termed "haemoglobinopathies". Abnormal haemoglobin appears in one of three basic circumstances:

Structural defects in the haemoglobin molecule. Alterations in the gene for one of the two haemoglobin subunit chains, alpha (a) or beta (b), are called mutations. Often, mutations change a single amino acid building block in the subunit. Most commonly the change is innocuous, perturbing neither the structure nor function of the haemoglobin molecule. Occasionally, alteration of a single amino acid dramatically disturbs the behavior of the haemoglobin molecule and produces a disease state. Sickle haemoglobin exemplifies this phenomenon.
Diminished production of one of the two subunits of the haemoglobin molecule. Mutations that produce this condition are termed "thalassemias." Equal numbers of haemoglobin alpha and beta chains are necessary for normal function. Haemoglobin chain imbalance damages and destroys red cells thereby producing anaemia. Although there is a dearth of the affected haemoglobin subunit, with most thalassemias the few subunits synthesised are structurally normal.
Abnormal associations of otherwise normal subunits. A single subunit of the alpha chain (from the a-globin locus) and a single subunit from the b-globin locus combine to produce a normal haemoglobin dimer. With severe a-thalassemia, the b-globin subunits begin to associate into groups of four (tetramers) due to the paucity of potential a-chain partners. These tetramers of b-globin subunits are functionally inactive and do not transport oxygen. No comparable tetramers of alpha globin subunits form with severe beta-thalassemia. Alpha subunits are rapidly degraded in the absence of a partner from the beta-globin gene cluster (gamma, delta, beta globin subunits).
In individuals suffering from beta-thalassemia, low levels of haemoglobin lead to a lack of oxygen in many parts of the body. People with beta-thalassemia are at an increased risk of developing abnormal blood clots.

Beta thalassemia is classified into two types depending on symptom severity. Transfusion-dependent thalassemia, also known as thalassemia major, is the more severe, while thalassemia intermedia is less severe.

Annually, approximately 1 in 100,000 cases are diagnosed worldwide. Beta-thalassaemia occurs most frequently in people from Mediterranean countries, North Africa, the Middle East, India, China and South East Asia.
Official title:
A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Autologous CRISPR-Cas12b Edited Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Transfusion-dependent β Thalassemia Patients


Name: Jun Shi, PhD

Phone: 13752253515



Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, China


Shanghai Vitalgen BioPharma Co., Ltd.


Tianjin, China
Regenerative Medicine Center, Tianjin, Tianjin, China

Study start:
Aug. 31, 2023
2 participants
Gene editing method:
Type of edit:
Gene re-activation
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF)
Delivery method:
IND Enabling Pre-clinical
Phase I Safety
Phase II Safety and Dosing
Phase III Safety and Efficacy

Status: Active recruiting


Through CRISPR-Cas 12b editing tool with independent intellectual property rights of Chinese Academy of Sciences, HBG1/2 promoter was edited to reactivate gamma-globin and induce fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression. This leads to a subsequent reduction in ineffective red blood cell production (due to a reduction in the uncompounded alpha-globin chain) and improved red blood cell survival (due to reduced hemolysis), ultimately improving the sequelae of anemia and reducing the need for transfusion. Safety and efficacy will be evaluated continuously throughout the study, follow-up was up to 24 months. After the end of this trial, participants who received the infusion of autologous CRISPR-Cas12b edited hematopoietic stem cells (VGB-Ex01) will be invited to participate in the long-term follow-up study to complete the 15-year follow-up plan.

Last updated: Feb. 5, 2024
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